By now you’re probably almost to the top and looking out over the Tucson Basin. We encourage you to stop, rest, and listen to the rest of this section about the archeology of Tumamoc Hill as you enjoy the sweeping views.

Imagine this landscape two thousand years ago. The Santa Cruz River flowed through the valley below, a winding ribbon with a swathe of green trees and fields – a faithful source of water in the desert. Ancient farmers used canals to draw water from the river and grow crops, and they built villages near their fields along the river valley.

Listen to the Introduction .mp3 file, or visit the Section Highlights for more information.

Audio file

From the top of Tumamoc Hill, you would have been able to gaze across those fields and villages as the river curled its way from south to north. You would have seen the full expanse of the Tucson Basin as you do now, with views in every direction, from Picacho Peak to the north, Baboquivari Peak to the west, and the Santa Rita Mountains to the south.

Section Highlights

Each section highlight features a video about that topic.


Get your bearings with this augmented reality view of the Tucson valley.


Over three thousand years ago people built massive rock walls around the edges of Tumamoc Hill. They are still here today. Learn about these incredible structures called trincheras.

Village Reconstruction